Reactions involving electron transfers are known as oxidation-reduction, or redox, processes, common and vital to our daily lives. Redox reactions lie at the heart of chemical, biological, environmental, and energy sciences and technologies. Here, we show how employing unconventional approaches and blueprints to a broad range of redox reactions taking place within homogeneous photocatalysts, protein scaffolds, and electrochemical systems provides an avenue for novel chemistries. Together, our studies showcase examples of redox processes proceeding under mild conditions, with some being driven by light or an external bias. Specifically, we investigate the photoactivation of metal-oxo bonds in coordination compounds, mechanism and function of a new class of copper enzymes, and novel electrolyte materials for use in organic redox flow batteries. Importantly, the diversity of molecular structures, functions, and mechanisms involved in these examples will highlight the versatility and modularity of the redox reactions and their vital role in realizing a sustainable future.
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