The nature and interactions of the most fundamental pieces of the universe is one of the deepest intellectual pursuits and the focus of particle physics. Probing at this level can be done by using the highest energies to explore physics at short range, which is the realm of high energy particle physics. Our approach, in contrast, is to develop the tools and to make precise measurements of the properties of atoms and nuclei that would be slightly altered by short-range physics. Our focus is on the magnetic and electric dipole moments of an elementary fermion: the muon, a hadron: the neutron, and an atom: 129Xe. The magnetic moment of the muon is slightly affected by interaction with the quantum vacuum, and the Standard Model can predict this to parts-per-billion, also the level at which we can measure in an ongoing experiment at Fermilab. The electric dipole moment (EDM) of the neutron also arises due to interactions with the vacuum, but has not yet been observed and is the focus of a new experiment rapidly coming together at Los Alamos. We have recently set the most precise limit on the 129Xe EDM and are planning the next generation of measurements. As we pursue these measurements, we have developed new approaches to magnetometry that are both essential for these experiments and have broad applications. In this talk I will expand on the motivations and describe PhD research opportunities in our lab.